Wrong scale up methodology in Chemistry

A new methodology is proposed to predict the size of air bubble in a liquid using the Gibbs phase rule. This algorithm calculates the number of phases and components under consideration, number of degrees of freedom and order terms to be included while modeling for a system.

The developed model predicts that when pressure is applied on a liquid, its volume reduces leading to an increase in the density of liquid which results into formation of gas bubbles from liquid surface due to high local pressure gradient near the boundary.

It is observed from our computations that if saturation pressure is applied at the bottom side then it will generate large bubbles compared with cases where saturation pressure was applied at both top and bottom sides simultaneously. Calculation shows that applying 3 MPa at bottom side can generate bubbles equivalent to 300 kg/m3 while applying the same at top and bottom simultaneously can generate bubbles equivalent to 100 Kg/m3.

The model is based on the assumption that higher pressure gradient near gas bubble will lead to large bubble formation which in turn reduces liquid volume and increases density of liquid thus generating large number of gas bubbles. The algorithm was tested for water and ethanol using ANSYS Fluent software package.

Three phase models were developed, one each for two-phase (gas-liquid) system, three-phases (gas – liquid – solid) system and multi-phase system with high number of phases. To account for surface tension effects, a user defined function is used throughout the article. It should be noted that the model does not include interaction between bubbles and surface tension of liquid.

It is concluded that applying high pressure near boundary of bubble will generate more number of gas bubbles which reduce the volume of liquid. The model is found to be simple, efficient and can be used in cases where bubble formation is one of the objectives such as degassing of liquids under high pressure.
Read more here – https://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/61931/20220103/the-year-in-review-five-incredible-innovations-that-rocked-the-world-in-2021.htm